A legend says that in the old days, when people had not yet lived in Crimea, two birds fought over the sea – an eagle and a falcon. The falcon was younger, the eagle was stronger, and it is not known who would have won if the sea had not been angry. It was it that turned the beautiful birds into high mountains that remained on the shore forever. The settlement Novy Svet (New World) is located just between these mountains at the shore of amazing Green Bay.
Mount Sokol is one of the highest mountains at this part of the South Coast of the Crimean peninsula. The ancient Romans called it Senator, and later the Tatars gave it a name – Kush-Kaya (Quş qaya) in translation with Turkic – “The bird’s rock”. Its height is about 474 meters, the length is 1200 m, width is from 800 to 1000 m. From the shore of the Black Sea, it seems as if it is almost a sheer cliff and it can be taken only by professional climbers, but in fact, it is possible can climb to the top for anybody, just from the other side. There are several routs to climb on its peak, and some parts are quite complicated, but it is possible to take it even for kids. One route passes along the old road that used to lead to the Golitsyn estate, but now it is used only by walking tourists. A way up to the peak takes about 2.5 hours, and almost the same time down. At the top of the mountain can be windy, so it is better to take a jacket and maybe a hat depending on weather conditions. The walkway passes rocks and roots, so comfortable shoes must-have. It’s better not to take a lot of things: a light snack and water are enough, and do not forget the camera! The concentration of amazing views on each square meter is just cosmic! No wonder that the amazing nature and beautiful landscapes and seascapes bring many travelers here.
What can be seen on the route?
You can climb to the very top and see the sea stretching to the horizon. From here – a stunning view of the Green Bay and Novy Svet settlement. But on this route, unexpected turns open up at any turn. So, on the local slopes there is a relict pine of Stankevich (also known as Sudak pine), which has survived to this day since the Mesozoic era without changes. It has bizarre curved trunks coursed by strong winds. There are picturesque fallen trunks, and there are conifers, completely overgrown with bluish moss. Walking in this area was especially recommended by the famous Russian doctor Sergey Botkin. So, he proved that just 45 minutes spent among pine trees and junipers is enough for the lungs to begin to open completely. Yes, here you can truly find out what it means to “breathe deeply”!
Here can also see the ruins – the remains of fortifying structures, an ancient water supply system, built on the orders of Prince Golitsyn. There is even a bridge over the gorge! About halfway through the route, another discovery awaits. It is a spring of St. Anastasia. Here you can not only replenish the reserves of drinking water but also swim. A font is cut down in the mountain, which is deep enough and almost always filled with water. The place is clean and ennobled. Its condition is maintained by novices of the Bakhchisarai monastery.
Interestingly, this mountain is actually the oldest coral reef, one of the largest surviving in Europe. Complex geological processes turned the remains of fossil organisms (corals, sponges, bryozoans) and algae that released lime into a dense stone. They say that the gray mountain after the rain becomes almost purple. Then it’s not at all difficult to imagine how massive it was when it was still a reef 150 million years ago!
Crimean Mountain Sokol will give you an incredible drive (energy). The feeling of a conquered peak is unlikely to-be-forgotten! The whole route also gives incredible impressions: mountain trails, natural attractions, small curved pine trees growing in the rock, fresh air with mix of the sea and juniper smells, the blue Black Sea will remain pleasant memories in your photographs.
Photographs from the Tour
Beautiful view at the beginning of hiking tour to the peak of Sokol mount on the Green Bay, Koba-Kaya Mountain (Mount Orel, Eagle), and resort settlement Novy Svet (New World).
Photo #083 taken on August 31, 2015
This exceptional Stankevich pine grows on a steep slope, almost at the peak (about 410 metres above sea level) of Sokol (Falcon) mountain in Novy Svet (New World). Such pine trees are very rare in nature, but they are endemic to the Sudak district on the southern coast of the Crimea peninsula. First described by the Russian botanist V.N. Stankevich, the pines were named by the academic V. N. Sukachev in 1906 in his honor. They are also known as “Sudak Pines”- after the region in which they are found. The pine tree in this photograph is about 200 years old.
Photo #222 taken on August 31, 2015
Overlooking the beach of settlement Novy Svet (New World) from Sokol Mountain at the height about 350 meters. The settlement is located about 6 km West from Sudak at picturesque Zelenaya Buhta (Green Bay). This tranquil bay with its crystal clear water is protected from wind on both sides by imposing mountains.
Photo #253 taken on August 31, 2015
View at the peak of Sokol (Falcon) Mountain, 474 meters above the level of Black Sea, peaceful “Zelenaya Buhta" (Green Bay) and the settlement of Novy Svet (New World), down the mountain at sunset.
Photo #254 taken on August 31, 2015
Beautiful Crimean landscape with the exceptional Stankevich pine growing on a slope of Sokol (Falcon) Mountain in Novy Svet (New World) in the background of the mountain range.
Such pine trees are very rare in nature, but they are endemic to the Sudak district on the southern coast of the Crimea peninsula. First described by the Russian botanist V.N. Stankevich, the pines were named in his honor by the academic V. N. Sukachev in 1906. They are also known as “Sudak Pines”- after the region in which the trees were found.
Photo #348 taken on August 31, 2015
The big Sudak pine on the slope of Sokol Mountain (Falcon Mountain) in Novy Svet in the background of the mountain range in Sudak district. The tree is used by people who climb on the mount as an object of wishes and offerings. This type of trees in Sudak was called Stankevich pine by the name of famous Russian botanist who found and described it in 1906.
Photo #384 taken on August 31, 2015
Breathtaking view from the peak of Sokol (Falcon) Mountain, which lies 474 metres above the peaceful “Zelenaya Buhta" (Green Bay) and the settlement of Novy Svet (New World), Crimea. This tranquil bay with its crystal clear water is protected on both sides by imposing mountains.
Photo #426 taken on September 31, 2015
Beautiful Stankevich pine tree growing on a steep slope of Sokol (Falcon) mountain in background of a valley where located Sudak city. Such pine trees are very rare in nature, but they are endemic to the Sudak district on the southern coast of the Crimea peninsula. First described by the Russian botanist V.N. Stankevich, the pines were named by the academic V. N. Sukachev in 1906 in his honor. They are also known as “Sudak Pines”- after the region in which they are found.
Photo #149 taken on August 11, 2019 during hiking tour on the peak of Sokol mountain with my dear clients from Hong Kong, Esther and Ricky (1st day of the adventure trip “Discovering Crimea within 6 Days”)
Overview beautiful sunset over Crimean Mountains from the peak of Sokol (Falcon) mountain (about 470 meters from a sea level) at Novy Svet, few kilometers from Sudak, the Sothern shore of Crimean Peninsula.
Photo #208 taken on August 11, 2019 during hiking tour on the peak of Sokol mountain with my dear clients from Hong Kong, Esther and Ricky (1st day of the adventure trip “Discovering Crimea within 6 Days”)
Monument to the Crimean partisans, "Memorial sign in honor of the Crimean partisans who died during the Great Patriotic War" is a memorial complex inscribed in the terrain at the junction of the road from the Worker’s Corner (now the Professor's Corner) to the Alushta-Yalta highway 35K-002 on the 5th kilometer from Alushta city.
The memorial complex was solemnly opened on November 4, 1981. The date is dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the creation of the partisan movement in the Crimea and the formation of the Alushta partisan detachment. The monument is a central composition and side panels made in bas-relief technique. In front of the composition there is a two-level platform with steps. The figures are carved from artificial stone. The faces of the fighters and commanders of the partisan detachment protrude from the central monolithic block - they face the slopes of the Main Ridge of the Crimean Mountains, where the partisans of the Alushta detachment fought. The side panels depict fight scenes.
Sculptor F. I. Aleshchenkov, architect I. T. Semenyaka. It is an object of cultural heritage of regional significance.
The decorative castle “Swallow Nest” rising on the Aurora Cliff framed by plants in the background of the blue waters of the Black Sea. The small, neo-Gothic decorative castle was built in Gaspra (13 km from Yalta by car) in 1911-1912 closer in style to various German Gothic castle follies, such as Lichtenstein Castle, specifically to catch visitors' attention with its fairy tale appearance. It is the most famous landmark and symbol of Crimea.
Photo #387 taken on August 14, 2019 in Gaspra on the 4th day of the adventure trip “Discovering Crimea in 6 Days” with my dear clients from Hong Kong, Esther and Ricky.
View of rocks at the edge of "Limen-Burun", the eastern spur of Cape Ai-Todor and a small rocky island called "Parus" (Sail), standing in front of it in the blue waters of the Black Sea. Limen (Liman) in Greek is a bay, a harbor cape. Here in the bay, there is a berth for pleasure boats and motor ships arriving to the famous castle "Swallow's Nest" in Gaspra. In the photo you can see in the distance the silhouette of the famous Au-Dag Mountain (Mountain Bear), where the Gurzuf resort and the Artek International Children's Camp are located.
Photo #382 taken on August 14, 2019 in Gaspra on the 4th day of the adventure trip “Discovering Crimea in 6 Days” with my dear clients from Hong Kong, Esther and Ricky.
View from the observation platform at Alupkinskoye highway on the decorative castle “Swallow Nest” rising on the Aurora Cliff in the background of the blue waters of the Black Sea. The small, neo-Gothic decorative castle was built in Gaspra (13 km from Yalta by car) in 1911-1912 closer in style to various German Gothic castle follies, such as Lichtenstein Castle, specifically to catch visitors' attention with its fairy tale appearance. It is the most famous landmark and symbol of Crimea.
Photo #432 taken on August 14, 2019 in Gaspra on the 4th day of the adventure trip “Discovering Crimea in 6 Days” with my dear clients from Hong Kong, Esther and Ricky.
View from the motorway in the southeast of the Crimean peninsula on the mountain landscape with vegetation, trees and vineyards, blue sky with clouds on a beautiful summer sunny day. It is the place between the villages of Morskoye and Privetnoye, not far from the Black Sea coast, between the two large cities of Sudak and Alushta.
Photo #027 taken on August 19, 2019
Overview Gurzuf bay from Snegiri Guest House at sunset in summer. In the picture: Gurzuf settlement, Gurzuf bay and Adalary twin-rocks, and Mount Au-Dag (Bear Mountain) in the background. Gurzuf is the popular resort-town (urban-type settlement) located 11 km East from Yalta city.
Photo #320 taken on August 12, 2019 during adventure trip “Discovering Crimea within One Week” with my Dear clients from Hong Kong, Esther and Ricky.
The round table at which at 5 p.m. on February 4, 1945 met the Big Three, Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill in the Great White Hall (former Parade Dining room) of the Livadia Palace. It was the first meeting of the Crimean (Yalta) conference that was held on February 4-11, 1945 between the allies of the anti-Hitler coalition, delegations of the USSR, USA and Great Britain.
The decisions adopted at the Livadia Palace at the round table of negotiations showed the possibility of fruitful cooperation between states with various social systems.
In the photo, on the left is the chair of the head of the USA, Franklin Roosevelt, on the right is the chair of the head of the USSR, Joseph Stalin, and the chair of the head of Great Britain, Winston Churchill, is located on the opposite side of the table in the center.
Currently, the round table as a museum exhibit is located in the parade lobby of the palace.
Photo #206 taken on May 05, 2017
The relief of the rocky coast of a small bay of Anton Chekhov in Gurzuf against the background of the famous twin rocks “Adalary”. In this bay, the famous Russian writer bought a small Tatar house (saklya) in late 1899, which became the place of his creative solitude. In a letter to his brother at the beginning of 1900, Anton Pavlovich describes his purchase: "A small bay with a beautiful view, its own cliffs, swimming, fishing, etc., etc."
The twin cliffs Adalary is a visiting card of not only Gurzuf resort, the Southern coast of Crimea, but also the whole Crimea. The rocks are located some distance from the sea in front of the Artek International Children's Center (the former famous pioneer camp in the USSR). On one of the cliffs, there is a tricolor, the national flag of Russia.
Photo #288 taken on August 13, 2019 during the tour of Dacha Chekhova in Gurzuf with my dear clients from Hong Kong, Esther and Ricky on the 3rd day of the adventure trip “Discovering Crimea in 6 Days”.
View from a hill on a pleasure boat returning back to a peer in the Gurzuf bay and seagulls flying over the Black sea.
Photo #304 taken on September 14, 2013
View from Yuzhnoberezhnoye Shosse (South Coast Highway) near Gurzuf on the white clouds hovering over the Black Sea.
Photo #251 taken on September 14, 2013
Quick stop on a road between Koktebel and Shebetovka overlooking the beautiful Crimean landscapes near Karadag Nature Reserve.
Photo #030 taken on August 24, 2015
Crimean landscape on the road between Koktebel and Shebetovka in the background of the mountains of Karadag Nature Reserve.
Photo #304 taken on September 14, 2013
Quick stop on a serpentine road in mountains to overview a valley near the famous Crimean Mountain Demerdzhi in Alushta covered with clouds and fog.
Photo #406 taken on May 06, 2017
Crimean seascape with a nice seagull flying over Gurzuf Bay (town settlement near Yalta) under impressive white clouds over the Black sea.
Photo #103 taken on September 15, 2013
The old Russian Moskvich (Izh) 412 car with old Soviet license plate with “KR” letters (related to Krym (Rus), Crimea (Eng)) on a curve of the South Coast Highway near Blue Bay (Goluboy Zaliv), Yalta region, on the way from Alupka to Foros, the most southern of the Crimean settlements.
Photo #098 taken on September 12, 2013
Beautiful Crimean landscape at sunset with a lonely standing tree on the mountain plateau of Burunchak near the Maryam-Dere (St. Maria) gully (not far from the Holy Dormition Cave Monastery) in Bakhchisaray.
Photo #925 taken on May 04, 2017
A small yacht is sailing the Black Sea before the storm on in bay of Gurzuf, south coast of Crimea.
Photo #086 taken on September 15, 2013 from a terrace of a local restaurant “Salambo” located on the beach about 16 m (52 ft) above sea level.
Overview mountains and large vineyards at the southern shore of Crimean Peninsula near a village Uskut, Alushta district.
Photo #087 taken on August 09, 2019
Amazing, picturesque mountain landscape of the central part of Crimea at Lake Devichye (Eng: Maiden; locals call it Lake Mangup) with a view of the village of Khoja-Sale located at the foot of Mangup Mountain. The ruins of Mangup-Kale, an ancient cave city, have been preserved not far from this place. The Devichye (Maiden) at the foot of Mount Mangup, surrounded by sheer cliffs, is very young. It was created by man 40 years ago. Mangup lake was formed thanks to the purposeful construction work that was carried out here in 1982-1984. The excavated pit was gradually filled with water coming from the springs that opened during excavation. So there was a reservoir, which began to exist independently and turned into a real natural object.
Photo #123 taken on August 17, 2019
View of Gurzuf bay framed by trees from an observation deck at the top of a hill on Gurzufskoye highway. The edge of Mount Au-Dag (Bear Mountain), twin-rocks Adalary, Skalny (Rocky) Hotel on the Genoese Rock with a peer of Chekhov’s Dacha at the bottom, old and modern buildings of Gurzuf you can see on this picture. Gurzuf is the popular resort-town (urban-type settlement) located in 11 km East from Yalta city.
Photo #021 taken on August 19, 2019
Old cast-iron 19th-century Russian naval cannon in the background of fortifications on the Fortress Mount Dzhenevez-Kaya (Crimean Tat. Cenevez Qaya). It is the gun from a sunken Russian frigate, which was shot down by two English battleships in 1854 during the Crimean War. The naval cannon was installed on the grounds of the Genoese fortress in Sudak on the site of the ruined "Cyril barracks" built by order of Prince Grigory Potemkin.
Photo #016 taken on August 11, 2019 during tour of Sudak Fortress with my dear clients from Hong Kong, Esther and Ricky on the 1st day of the adventure trip “Discovering Crimea in 6 Days”.
|Album||Genoese Fortress in Sudak|
|Taken||August 11, 2019|
|Uploaded||November 10, 2019|
Direct bottom view of the light and airy crystal chandelier hanging on the ceiling of the Bedroom of Their Imperial Majesties in Livadia Palace.
Work on the decoration of the bedroom was performed by the Moscow furniture factory of K.V. Siebrecht.
Photo #203 taken on August 14, 2019 during tour of Livadia Palace and Park with my dear clients from Hong Kong, Esther and Ricky on the 4th day of the adventure trip “Discovering Crimea in 6 Days”.
A small waterfall in the Grand Canyon filling the deep natural bath Kara-gol formed by Auzun-Uzen river (stream). The river flows at the bottom of the Canyon with multitude of blocks and boulders, forms over hundred of 2-3 meter deep erosive cauldrons and gullies that look like porcelain sinks. These are so called baths. Kara-gol is the largest natural font, located on the road from Yalta to the peak of Ai-Petri. Even in extreme heat, the water temperature in the font nicknamed “Bath of Youth” does not exceed 11-12 degrees. Kara-gol has an average diameter of about 5 meters, or rather, the bath is almost rectangular, 3 by 6 meters and a depth of 6 meters. From a ledge, 3 meters high, jets of a very pretty waterfall flow into it. The parameters of the "bath" completely allow those who wish to dive from a towering stone ledge without fear of injury. But the waterfall is just the appearance of filling the font. In fact, water enters the small mountain lake from a spring that does not dry during the hottest time, and is 150 meters higher from the ground.
Photo #693 taken on May 04, 2017
Large yellow cable car cabin moving down from a station at the top of Ai-Petri (St. Peter) Mountain. Buildings at the edge of Yalta city are visible don’t the mountain (1200 meters above sea level) in the background of the picture.
Photo #038 taken on May 04, 2017
Beautiful landscape at the peak of Mount Ai-Petri (St. Peter) with the view of the Figured Teeth, the 60-80 m high ridges formed during the weathering of heterogeneous reef limestones, and the coast of Black sea where located resort settlements Koreiz (down at the left) and Alupka (down at the right).
Vorontsov Palace and Park, one of the oldest and largest palaces in Crimea, situated in Alupka, at the foot of Ai-Petri Mountain.
Photo #070 taken on May 04, 2017
Overview Yalta Bay, Yalta city and its surroundings on the shore of Black Sea from Silver Arbor, the amazing observation spot located on the way to the peak of Mount Ai-Petri. Below the arbor is a waterfall Uchan-Su and magnificent centuries-old pine forest at the foot of the hill Pendikyul. The locks of love left by just married couples on the small fence protecting this observation deck. The Silver Arbor is an ecological and educational object located the Pendikul mountain at the height of 848 meters above sea level. The arbor was established in 1894 in honor of builders of the road Yalta - Ai-Petri - Bakhchisarai.
Photo #035 taken on May 04, 2017
View from the observation area at the peak of Mount Ai-Petri on the Figured Teeth, the 60-80 m high ridges formed during the weathering of heterogeneous reef limestones, in the background of resort settlements Koreiz and Gaspra (far away) at 1200 meters above sea level. In a summer season, a rickety suspension bridge is set to the rock with a cross with the sign “Bless and Save”.
Photo #148 taken on May 04, 2017
The spring landscape of the upper plateau of Mount Ai-Petri overlooking the huge white balls of the radar complex on the top of the Bedene-Kır mountain. Bedene-Cyr in Turkic means Quail Mountain.
White patches of unmelted snow on the plateau at a height about 1,2 km above sea level are still visible on the plateau surface. The complex of radar stations (RLS) is located on the top of Bedene-Cyr (Quail ) Mountain and is classified as “secret”. It is the highest plateau's peak of 1334 meters above sea level.
Photo #331 taken on May 04, 2017
View from the highest point of Ai-Petri mountain, the peak in the Crimean Mountains with the famous figured teeth, on the aerial cableway with a cute yellow car on the way down from the plateau (height about 1200 meters). The bay of Yalta city located on the site of an ancient Greek colony is in the background of the picture.
Photo #209 taken on May 04, 2017
View of a bird flying over the famous figured teeth at the peak the highest point of Ai-Petri mountain, the peak in the Crimean Mountains. The teeth of Ai-Petri consist of four large (60-80 m high) and a number of small ridges on the crest formed during the weathering of heterogeneous reef limestones at 1200 meters above sea level. Beautiful relict pine trees can be seen on the top and between the ridges that growing all around in the Crimean mountains.
Photo #193 taken on May 04, 2017
The Silver Arbor framed by trees on the way from Yalta to the top of Ai-Petri mountain by car. It is an ecological and educational object located the Pendikul mountain at the height of 848 meters above sea level. The arbor was established in 1894 in honor of builders of the road Yalta - Ai-Petri - Bakhchisarai.
In the winter the arbor becomes covered with light hoarfrost, creating an illusion of transfusion in the sunshine a thin layer of silver. From this, the name “Silver Arbor” appeared. From a rotunda of the arbor opens the scenic views on the Yalta amphitheater, Nikitskaya Yayla, Mount Au-Dag, the oak and juniper woods of the cape Martyan and the amazing coast of the Black Sea.
Photo #032 taken on May 04, 2017
Crimean landscape with the view of a waving road in the South-West of the plateau leading to the highest point of Ai-Petri, the peak in the Crimean Mountains with the famous figured teeth. The teeth of Ai-Petri consist of four large (60-80 m high) and a number of small ridges on the crest formed during the weathering of heterogeneous reef limestones at 1200 meters above sea level. Ai-Petri is one of the windiest places in Crimea. The wind blows for 125 days a year, reaching a speed of 50 m/s (110 mph).
Photo #061 taken on May 04, 2017
The sign in Russian “Livadiysky Dvorets 1911-2019” (Eng: Livadia Palace 1911-2019) made from snow-white pebbles in amazing park with palms in front of the former summer residence of the last Russian Emperor, Nicholas II Romanov, in Crimea. The palace was built outskirts of Yalta city in 1911 by the project of Russian architect Nikolay Krasnov.
Photo #036 taken on August 14, 2019 during the tour of Livadia Palace and Park with my dear clients from Hong Kong, Esther and Ricky on the 4th day of the adventure trip “Discovering Crimea within Six Days”.
Interior decoration of the Billiard room of Massandra Palace with the beautiful chandelier and fragment of stucco ceiling with Gothic forms. Following 19th century interior rules, the Billiard room was finished in the style of the English Renaissance.
Photo #096 taken on May 02, 2017
View from the observation platform at Baidarsky Pass on the Church of Christ's Resurrection rising on the abrupt 400-meter (1312 ft) Red Cliff (Krasnaya Skala) above Black sea and Foros settlement covered with fog in spring twilight. The church was built by the design of Russian architect Nikolai Chagin in 1892.
Photo #788 taken on May 05, 2017
Angle bottom view of a chandelier (Greek: panikadilo) hanging from cupola (dome) of the Church of Christ's Resurrection in Foros. The beautiful cupola and vaults of the church decorated with Byzantine ornamentation.
Photo #708 taken on May 05, 2017
Magnificient interior of the Church of Christ's Resurrection in Foros with the view from the middle of the church on the carved oak iconostasis (icon screen) with the gilded the Beautiful Gates (Holy Doors) in the center and shining church chandelier (Greek: Panikadilo) hanging from its cupola (dome). The walls of the church decorated with Byzantine ornamentation.
Photo #692 taken on May 05, 2017
The reception rooms and offices of Their Majesties are located on the second floor of Massandra Palace, as well as their bedchamber and bathrooms. Conventionally, the entire floor of the castle can be divided into two halves - male and female, and each of them has a spiral staircase at the left and right sides of the building.
On the picture is shown decorations of ceiling in reception room of Maria Fedorovna. The finest molding of the ceiling is painted that allows to examine its ornament. Artfully mounted in the ceiling lattices of ventilation system was made by the project of Professor Lukashevich. The interior of reception room supplemented with nice bronze chandelier.
Photo #126 taken on September 14, 2013
View from a second floor of the Massandra Palace on a part of the curved retaining wall with fountains decorated with colums and arches at the parade entrance gate into the Royal estate. The wall, columns and fountains were built when the estate belonged to Prince Vorontsov, the Governer of Novorossiya. The entrance gate was "guarded" by lions - sculptural castings (made in the workshops of the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg) from the work of the famous French animal sculptor A.L. Bari (1796-1875). The entire retaining wall was decorated with majolica plates, red irrigation tiles. Six fountains with satyr and naiad macarons were mounted in it (these masks were replaced with masks of lions in Stalin times). By its architectural and artistic decision, this retaining wall organically entered the general palace and park ensemble.
Photo #120 taken on August 13, 2019 during the tour of Massandra Palace with my dear clients from Hong Kong, Esther and Ricky on the 3rd day of the adventure trip “Discovering Crimea in 6 Days”.
Sculpture of the woman-sphinx with a ball at the facade of Massandra Palace, a suburb of Yalta, Crimea. The palace was built at the end of 19th century in the style of Louis XIII of France (French chateaux of the Renaissance) and belonged to Russian Emperor Alexander III.
Photo #227 taken on May 02, 2017